This lecture will be based on a research focusing on the Nanjing City Wall led by Prof. Cheng Yuning for more than 15 years. The lecture will be divided into 3 parts. Firstly, a brief review on the origins and development of China’s city wall, including Nanjing, will be introduced. Then, a specific spatial analysis will be carried out to compare the different development periods of the city and the surrounding space in history. The space evolution and the relationship between the city and the wall will be demonstrated and summarized. In the end, an urban project including the city wall area design, preservation guidelines and the detailed design of each wall segment will be presented for discussion.