Tag Archives: architecture

Marco Trisciuoglio. Nota sulle morfologie urbane transizionali come critica agli studi urbani in ambito cinese

Nota sulle morfologie urbane transizionali come critica agli studi urbani in ambito cinese. La mappa tipologica di Hehua Tang a Nanchino
Note on the transitional urban morphologies
as a criticism of urban studies
in the chinese context. The typological
map on Nanjing Hehua Tang
U+D n.14 – 2021

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Le città cinesi di oggi non sembrano paragonabili, nelle loro strade e nei loro edifici, con le città cinesi ancora esperibili nella prima metà del secolo XX, con i caratteri morfologici di lunga durata derivati dalla storia e chiaramente riconoscibili. La Nanchino di oggi, per come viene descritta nel romanzo di ZHU Wen Se non è amore vero, allora è spazzatura (什么 是 拉圾 ,什么 是 爱, 2004), è così lontana dalla Nanchino descritta da YE Zhaoyan in Nanchino 1937. Una storia d’amore (一九 三 七年 的 爱情, 1996), per non parlare della perdita oggi di quel senso degli spazi urbani e dei luoghi privati che si può ancora trovare leggendo le lettere di My Lady of the Chinese Courtyard, il romanzo epistolare di Elizabeth Cooper ambientato nel Jiangsu del 1914, o tuffandosi letteralmente nelle pagine caleidoscopiche del monumentale romanzo Il sogno della camera rossa (红楼梦), scritto secondo la tradizione da CAO Xueqin a metà XVIII secolo.
In effetti, l’esercizio di una più attenta comprensione delle transizioni di una città, dal carattere urbano che era proprio dei secoli delle dinastie Ming e Qing al carattere di una città ridisegnata durante la breve Repubblica Cinese, poi trasformato ancora nel carattere di una città sottoposta ai processi di modernizzazione durante il “balzo in avanti” sino alla metamorfosi ormai compiuta
nella metropoli complessa e “smart” dell’Asia di oggi, può essere utile per comprendere il terreno di gioco sul quale stanno decidendo il futuro di una città come Nanchino progettisti, urbanisti e stakeholders.

open file   1 -Marco Trisciuoglio – Nanjing

LETTER FROM THE STUDENTS OF THE URBAN MORPHOLOGY COURSE TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE A.R. MASTER COURS AND TO THE DIRECTOR OF THE DIAP DEPARTMENT.

Date: Fri, Jan 22, 2021, 11:24 AM
To: Nicola Santopuoli <nicola.santopuoli@uniroma1.it>, <alessandra.capuano@uniroma.it>

Dear Prof. Nicola Santopuoli and Prof.ssa Alessandra Capuano,

I am writing on behalf of my colleagues, the second year students of The Master degree of Architecture Conservation (international program). We want to convey that we are very happy with the course of Urban Morphology by Prof. Giuseppe Strappa.

During this difficult period, even though the lessons were held online, Prof. Strappa has always organized the class in interesting sessions; including seminars presented by other universities’ professors to give short lectures about broad topics of Urban Morphology. This class was well organized and since the beginning it has been very useful for us as students.

Regarding the topic of Urban Morphology itself, we think of it as an interesting and important subject which helped us get better understanding on reading of the urban fabric and its transformation process as it is the root of architectural advancements and restoration activites. As international students coming from so many countries and different cultural backgrounds, it was very rewarding for us to have knowledge about this topic.

During all the lessons, Prof. Strappa and the assistant professors have always explained clearly and kindly about the material. The professor also provided us with plenty of study resources (books, research papers, articles etc.). All of them have been very kind and have taken utmost efforts to explain the concepts on a deeper level in a stipulated time period.

Considering the reasons mentioned above, we sincerely think that the course is very valuable and useful for us as students studying Architecture Conservation.

Thank you. Sincerely

On behalf of ;

  1. Retri Atta 1888274
  2. Nirmiti Sutar 1904432
  3. Aswathy Mooliyil 1890307
  4. Nada Mokhtar Ahmed 1920227
  5. Mugahid Abbas 1898072
  6. Chuci Li 1898794
  7. Beatrice Sacco 1636100
  8. Sahar Alamdari 1918341
  9. Atefeh Molaei 1916200

10.Mozhdeh Rafigh 1914964

11.Serli Hobikoglu 1909290

12.Muhamed shehbaaz 1918046

13.Jasna Jamal 1920936

14.Delaram Moussazadeh 1914525

15.Neginossadat Mansouri 1919503

16.MOHAMMAD ISHAAQ MOHIUDDIN – 1923824

17.Naida Kibaroglu 1889019

18.Lucy Hayes-Stevenson 1883003

19.Valeriya Borissova 1918644

20.Deniz Basak Gorur 1892080

21.Liliia Kulchitckaia 1895312

22.Muneer Ahmad Faizi 1908662

23.Roberto Villalobos 1889729

24.Patel neel 1922154

25.Valeriya Borissova 1918644

26.Deniz Basak Gorur 1892080

27.Liliia Kulchitckaia 1895312

28.Muneer Ahmad Faizi 1908662

29.Roberto Villalobos 1889729

30.Amtul Mateen Ayesha 1889583

  1. Jean Montagne 1884847
  2. Diellze Bucaliu 1906975
  3. Rita Salamouni 1904766
  4. Roshni Susan Kuruvilla 1913891
  5. Iffiu Anna Krisztina 1896451
  6. Yasmine Selim 1920198

37.Pelin Yılmaz 1735747

  1. Ecem Kundakçı 1910173
  2. Taylan Can YILMAZ 1889318
  3. Memnune Kubra OZER 1911371
  4. Yasaman Mehrabian 1920098

42.sevda bananbaghbani 1918170

  1. Chris Merrin – 1925340
  2. Niloofar Zangiband 1907192
  3. Seray Unver 1899327
  4. Ceyda Oflaz 1910144
  5. Sinem Çuhadar 1889415
  6. Ahmed Ghanem 1906360
  7. Rony Bouez 1883960
  8. Omar Elrefaey 1907022
  9. Denis Qerimi 1906985
  10. Astrit Rraci 1889669
  11. Ola Shaker 1910526

 

La ricerca di morfologia urbana in Italia. Tradizione e futuro. Giornata di studio

 

Esistono oggi scuole di morfologia urbana? La tradizione italiana è stata rivolta, almeno in parte, all’uso operativo degli studi sulla forma urbana. Ma è ancora possibile proporre, oggi, ricerche in chiave progettuale e didattica, oltre che interpretativa?  Qual è il lascito “aggiornato” dei maestri che hanno contribuito alla nascita di una scuola di morfologia urbana?

 

 

manifesto giornata di studio 14 gennaio 2021 (1)

Nello sforzo di rinnovare gli strumenti di partecipazione alla costruzione dei numeri della rivista, la redazione di U+D – Urbanform and Design intende organizzare l’issue number 15/2021 sul tema La ricerca di morfologia urbana in Italia. Tradizione e futuro, chiamando a collaborare gli autori fin dalla sua impostazione, che sarà discussa in una Giornata di Studio in programma per il 14 gennaio 2021.

L’iniziativa ha due finalità correlate tra loro.

Si tratta di sperimentare un nuovo metodo di progettare la pubblicazione pensandola come processo e definendone la struttura in forma partecipata.

L’iniziativa ha, poi, lo scopo di contribuire a rilanciare il dibattito sui temi della forma urbana riguardata nei sui esiti tangibili e indagata secondo metodi razionali e trasmissibili. Pur in un’accezione ampia e aperta del termine “morfologia urbana”, l’interesse dell’incontro sarà rivolto alle ricerche basate sullo studio concreto dei fenomeni urbani e sul loro esito progettuale.

Tema importante sarà anche il ruolo fondamentale che scuole e maestri hanno avuto, in Italia, nel costruire un pensiero originale sugli studi urbani, oggetto di una nuova attenzione in campo internazionale. Il dibattito dovrebbe essere incentrato, secondo le intenzioni degli organizzatori, non su uno sguardo storico e retrospettivo, ma sull’attualità del loro lascito che va confrontato con le questioni più urgenti che la crisi della città contemporanea pone.

Proponendo una riflessione rivolta al futuro ma basata sui temi della condizione contemporanea, sembra utile porre, allora, i seguenti interrogativi:

cosa si intenda oggi per morfologia urbana;

come essa venga studiata e proposta nella didattica delle scuole italiane;

come venga studiata e proposta nel progetto di architettura;

quali nuove prospettive di ricerca si possano avanzare per interpretare la fenomenica attuale.

Le differenti posizioni che emergeranno nella giornata di studio, strutturata in forma di tavoli di discussione,  contribuiranno a formare un quadro sintetico delle attività teoriche, progettuali e didattiche praticate nelle diverse scuole.

Senza avere la pretesa di esaurire il quadro delle ricerche sul tema in corso in Italia, alla giornata sono invitati studiosi delle sedi in cui sono presenti Corsi di Laurea in Architettura che operano su questo stesso orizzonte di sperimentazione con metodi e fini diversi ma, riteniamo, spesso complementari.

L’evento è aperto all’intera comunità di studiosi e architetti che operano in questo settore e che potranno partecipare come uditori mediante la piattaforma on line.

link: https://meet.google.com/fvb-wjkv-uze

 

The overturned city

 

Giuseppe Strappa

The overturned city /  La città rovesciata

U+D n.14 – editorial

Rome was certainly not the only victim of a rapid and violent consumption of the most precious part of the inherited city. The crisis of its historical fabric was however exemplary and the questions that its decline posed contain, as often in history, a universal meaning.
Some considerations on the historic city of Rome (on the way, above all, in which the crisis caused by the pandemic has posed new problems and some hope) may be of general significance not only because the city has been, for at least a century, an important place of experimentation in terms of interventions on its historical heritage, but also because it has given a significant contribution to the thought on the architecture of the modern city, that of Kahn, Venturi, Rowe, Muratori.
What is changing, therefore, in the historic city, meaning by this term not only an architectural and building heritage, but a system of values, functions and symbols inevitably in transformation?
I believe that the problem has to be posed in a broad perspective that considers the formative phases of the city fabric, posing the question in its structural terms, which are economic and political.

continue reading       editoriale n.14 – strappa NUOVO

Dormitories in Louis Kahn’s Indian Institute of Management at Ahmedabad to be demolished

Let us sign against the demolition of a monument that belongs to both India and the world
Prem Chandavarkar
An Open Letter to Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad   

Dear Dr. D’Souza,

Iam writing this open letter to articulate the deep concern felt by many architects and non-architects, from India and elsewhere in the world, on hearing that Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad (IIMA) plans to demolish most of the dormitory blocks designed by Louis Kahn that form a key part of the historic core of IIMA, and has invited bids from architects to redesign these dormitories, albeit in an architectural language sympathetic to the Kahn idiom.

An article in The Indian Express of 25 December 2020 raises some of these concerns and cites you as stating that you have written a letter on 23 December 2020 to all IIMA alumni, and all queries are answered in the letter. I have been through this letter and feel compelled to state that many concerns still remain.

At the famous house ‘Fallingwater’ in Pennsylvania, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, there is a plaque that marks the moment that Edgar Kaufmann Jr. surrendered his ownership to donate the house to a trust that would preserve it as a milestone of architectural heritage accessible to the public.  The plaque cites Kaufmann’s justification of this donation, saying that there are some houses built by one man for another man whereas this is a house built by one man for all of humankind.  The work of Louis Kahn should be seen in the same spirit. Kahn was a seminal figure of 20th century architecture who occupies a unique place in history in the way his built work and writings display mastery of an architecture that is simultaneously modern and timeless. He has left a heritage that carries value to all of humankind, and IIMA has been privileged to act as a custodian of a valuable piece of this heritage.  This is a mantle that must be granted its due and not worn lightly, a fact that is already acknowledged by IIMA in naming the main plaza of the campus after Louis Kahn and acknowledging on the institution’s website that Kahn’s designs at IIMA “instil in the viewer a sense of awe and wonder”. This spirit is infectious and involves more than Kahn: it affected many who collaborated with him on the IIMA project. More significantly, it has had an impact on generations who have inhabited the spaces of IIMA, demonstrated by the fact that there are very few institutions who acknowledge the architect who designed them with the reverence that IIMA shows to Kahn on their website. It is more than the matter of a specific individual; we hold in these buildings a wider legacy the reflects primordial human spirit, and this spirit should provide the light under which the challenge of restoring the dormitories must be evaluated.

You have said in your letter to alumni, “We have grappled with questions as to why we should presume that the past is not changeable and why we should assume that future generations will value things in exactly the same way that past generations have. We wondered if it is appropriate for us to colonise future perceptions of living spaces.”  Can awe and wonder colonise the future? Are they not timeless values that sustain the core of the human soul? I urge IIMA to not look at this as a conflict between past, present and future. Heritage is not solely about the preservation of the past.  In its essence, heritage is a contemporary moment of critical discernment where we look at the past and carefully choose what is worth remembering because that memory will serve the future well.  Surely, Kahn’s legacy is a past that does not degrade, and its continued physical presence, in all its authenticity, will serve the future well through the eternal values of awe and wonder that it evokes.

You have stated that Dormitories 16,17,18, along with the restored Dormitory 15, will be retained as “they constitute the periphery of the built campus and are the first buildings that persons who enter the campus see and understand along with the LKP and associated buildings as the grandeur associated with the work of Kahn.”  This reasoning is troubling, as it implies a devaluation of heritage to place more emphasis on a public façade, assigning lesser value to what lies behind the façade. Kahn’s design is more than a façade to be seen, it is embodied in a spatial order to be experienced, where the union of the academic block, library and dormitories create an intimate network of courtyards that, along with the buildings, capture the spirit of a monastic community of learners where knowledge is collectively held as sacred. The cohesiveness of this spatial core forms the entirety of the restoration project launched by IIMA in 2014 and is something that must be preserved. To modify it substantively is to devalue the integrity of Kahn’s legacy.

It is striking that your letter does not cite a specific recommendation from Somaya & Kalappa (SNK), the firm appointed by IIMA in 2014 to steer restoration work of the Kahn designs. The quality of their effort is reflected in their restoration of the Vikram Sarabhai Library at IIMA winning an Award of Distinction in the 2019 UNESCO Asia Pacific Awards. As recently as 28 November 2020, Ms. Brinda Somaya, Principal Architect of SNK, delivered an online lecture to CEPT University on the IIMA restoration project. In that lecture, she did not mention a need to abandon any of the Kahn dormitories. She mentioned that Dormitory 15 was selected as a prototype project for restoration as it was one of the dormitories in the worst condition, and if this could be restored, the others would be easier to tackle. In her lecture, she presented the successful restoration of Dormitory 15, a fact that is also affirmed on the IIMA website. In the Indian Express article cited earlier, the reporter mentions contacting Ms. Somaya who responded that she has not been informed about this new bid for architectural services to replace 14 out of 18 Kahn dormitories. It is troubling if this is true and the decision to demolish the Kahn dormitories and invite bids to replace them with new structures was taken without consulting the experts appointed to guide the restoration of the Kahn buildings.

In Ms. Somaya’s lecture she speaks about the seismic vulnerability of the dormitory blocks. She mentioned that while they had a structural consultant to work with them on the project, they realised deeper expertise was needed, and they consulted Dr. Arun Menon of Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Dr. Menon is an internationally recognised expert on seismic design, is one of the primary authors of India’s building codes on seismic design, and one of his specific research interests cited on his CV is “Seismic Response, Assessment and Retrofit of Masonry Structures.” Ms. Somaya spoke on how Dr. Menon’s analysis showed that most of the seismic concerns in the dormitories spring from the height of the masonry drum that encloses the staircase as it rises above terrace level. In the restoration of Dormitory 15, this has been addressed by marginally reducing the height of the drum and adding masonry buttresses that are lower than the parapet height and therefore not visible from outside. It is striking that your letter does not cite any specific recommendation from Dr. Menon, despite the stature of his expertise and his involvement with the restoration project.

Your letter mentions many technical problems that have influenced IIMA’s decision to demolish close to 80% of the Kahn dormitories: seismic risk, poor quality of brickwork, cracking of masonry caused by corrosion of reinforcement rods, a pointing technique used in masonry joints that encourages water seepage, etc.  You state that these make the buildings both impractical and unsafe, and your letter implies they are determining factors. All of these problems are present in the buildings being restored: the Vikram Sarabhai Library, the Classroom Block, the Faculty Block, as well as the four dormitory blocks being restored. Clearly, IIMA would not put people in unsafe and unusable buildings, so the plan to restore these buildings shows these problems have solutions, and Ms. Somaya’s lecture presents many of these solutions.  Clearly, the technical dimensions of these problems cannot be the determining factor.

You state that three imperatives guided IIMA’s decision: (1) functional needs, (2) cultural heritage, and (3) available resources. But your letter throws no light on how you weighted these imperatives in your analysis, especially given the challenge of cultural heritage being the only one of the three whose value is almost wholly intangible. If it is primarily a matter of available resources, a value assigned to heritage would, at the very least, demand tabling an assessment of the resources needed for a complete restoration. And if there is a gap between needed and available resources, the question rises on whether IIMA made an effort to leverage its standing with government, its international reputation, its long list of illustrious alumni, and the global respect and affection granted to Louis Kahn and his designs for IIMA in order to raise the required resources. Your letter is silent on these aspects.

I can appreciate that functional needs have changed, enrolment has grown, and buildings designed close to five decades ago will not accommodate current demands. This challenge is not new; it has been successfully faced by many universities across the world, often with a history going back centuries (far longer than that of IIMA). There are multiple case studies available of how these universities have successfully preserved their built heritage yet been able to adjust to changing times, and their built heritage is a key component of the identity, brand and culture of these universities. Has IIMA surveyed these best practices across the world and benchmarked its evaluation against them? Has there been a campus-wide assessment of how to adjust to new needs, looking beyond the historic core of Kahn’s architecture? Just because the Kahn buildings are the oldest, should they be the only ones considered for demolition, especially given their heritage value? A campus-wide master plan to assess and design for long-term needs, that holds heritage conservation as a core value, should be conducted by a reputed and qualified architect, and this plan should be openly tabled and reviewed as the frame that guides the final decisions. This too finds no mention in your letter.

Your letter states, There were even difficult questions around the central theme of Kahn’s work at the campus which was that everything was planned around the idea of meeting. In today’s world our experience is that students hardly use these shared spaces as they have gravitated to virtual modes of interacting.”  It is true that cyberspace is far more significant to the current generation of students than to earlier generations. But this recognition should not be given undue weightage. First, it is not correct to assume that physical meeting spaces are no longer significant as they have been completely appropriated by cyberspace; students still value physical meeting, and a visit to any reasonably priced coffee house or pub is sufficient to demonstrate this.  Second, as the work of scholars such as Tristan HarrisHossein Derakshan, and Zeynep Tufekci shows, there is a growing body of literature that shows virtual fora to be tempting but damaging, for they decrease capacity for concentrated attention and analysis, encourage addictive behaviour, induce psychological alienation, and reduce ability to cope with diversity due to social fragmentation into filter bubbles of like-minded people. Third, there is significant management literature to demonstrate the value of physical and serendipitous interaction; to name a few sources touching on this aspect that come readily to mind, Ettiene Wenger’s work on communities of practice, Nonaka and Takeuchi’s study on how Japanese corporations leverage tacit knowledge, and Peter Senge’s articulations on personal mastery. It would be a shame if a premier institution like IIMA surrenders so readily to the temptations of the virtual, especially given the power of face-to-face interaction is so intrinsically baked into the bricks and mortar of the campus core. While the pandemic may have temporarily put the brakes on physical meetings, they are not lost to us forever. The power of serendipitous physical meetings can easily be revived and leveraged if this is adopted by the institution as an explicit pedagogical goal.

I beseech you to place this issue once more before the Governing Council to be evaluated afresh given the concerns articulated here. I urge the Governing Council to look at the Kahn dormitories heeding the words of the famous economist Kenneth E. Boulding in his classic paper “The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth”, where he says, “….the welfare of the individual depends on the extent to which he can identify himself with others, and that the most satisfactory individual identity is that which identifies not only with a community in space but also with a community extending over time from the past into the future. If this kind of identity is recognized as desirable, then posterity has a voice, even if it does not have a vote; and in a sense, if its voice can influence votes, it has votes too. This whole problem is linked up with the much larger one of the determinants of the morale, legitimacy, and nerve of a society, and there is a great deal of historical evidence to suggest that a society which loses its identity with posterity and which loses its positive image of the future loses also its capacity to deal with present problems, and soon falls apart.”

Yours sincerely,